Background to Theory
Electrons, anti-electrons (positrons) and neutrinos or anti-neutrinos are all Leptons, meaning light-weight particles, and can possess electrical charge but never experience the strong colour-force. The leptons always have integral electrical charge, never fractional, with electrons being negatively charged, positrons positively charged and neutrinos electrically neutral. Their colour charge is neutral or 'white'.

Quarks are the constituent particles in hadrons, meaning heavy-weight particles, such as the neutron and proton. The quarks possess both an electrical charge, which is never integral always fractional, and a colour charge which is responsible for the strong nuclear force within atomic nuclei. Quarks can possess 1/3rd, -1/3rd, +2/3rd or -2/3rd electrical charge. The colour charge on a quark can take on only one of three possibilities: red, or green, or blue.

Neutrons and Protons both possess three quarks each. The three quarks within them always assume three different colour charges with one being red, one green and the other blue, such that from the outside the hardrons appear 'white'. (Red + green + blue make white in the additive colour system). [The quarks within hadrons are actually able to swap colours at will, but at any one time each quark possesses a different colour. This continual exchange of colour is responsible for the colour force which keeps the three quarks confined within the hadron, quite in-capable of escaping no matter what magnitude the force which tries pulling them apart. A quark can never be free, but must always be surrounded by differently coloured quarks in order to appear white from afar. The smallest number of quarks that can be together is two: anti-quark and quark, one with one of the three colours, the other with it's anti-colour (cyan, yellow or magenta), this constituting a meson].

A neutron has two 'down' quarks with -1/3rd electrical charge and one 'up' quark with +2/3rd electrical charge. Thus the neutron is neutral overall.

A proton has two 'up' quarks with +2/3rd electrical charge and one 'down' quark with -1/3rd electrical charge. The proton therefore has a net electrical charge of +1.

In Beta decay, one of the 'down' quarks in a neutron changes into an 'up' quark, whilst at the same time emitting an electron and an anti-neutrino. Thus the neutron changes into a proton. Electrical charge is conserved; the electron carries off the unity negative charge, enabling a neutral neutron to change into a positively charged proton.

In Beta decay hadrons mysteriously change into leptons...

Twisted Tri-Prism Theory (T-Cubed)

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My theory relates leptons (neutrinos, electrons and positrons) to quarks, which must be related otherwise beta decay could not occur. If each particle was somehow made of a minute ring with triangular cross section, then the number of twists in the ring would corresponding to their electrical charge, and the number of sides to their colour charge. A triangular prism ring with an integral number of twists will have three sides, but like a Mobius loop, a ring with a fractional twist will have only one side.

Thus a neutrino would consist of a ring without twists, and therefore no charge. It would have three sides, each able to carry a different colour charge, red green and blue. It would therefore be colourless.

An electron would be a ring with one whole twist in it, forming an electrical charge of one whole unit. Still with three sides, it too would be colourless.

A down quark would be a ring with a single 1/3rd twist, and therefore an electrical charge of - 1/3. But with only one side it can have but one colour: red or green or blue.

An up quark, with two 1/3rd twists, but in the opposite direction, would have an electrical charge of + 2/3. With just one side, it too has just one colour.

Twists in opposite directions, being mirror images, would give anti-particles.

Note that a neutrino, having no twists, would have no anti-particle. It could, however, possess a very subtle anti-particle, by being coloured red, green and blue but in the opposite order - it could have a 'coloured' mirror image.

A quark and anti-quark ring could be linked together to form a non-coloured meson. Three such quark rings entwined together in either a Borromean or a non-Borromean ring arrangement could form a colourless baryon, eg a proton.

This theory successfully explains why sub-atomic particles with fractional electrical charge must experience the colour force, and why those with integral electrical charge are colourless (white) and do not experience the colour force.

Just as a matter of additionl interest, if a twisted tri-prism ring with 1/3rd of a twist is cut lengthwise into three along the edge, then a single loop results of three times the length, and with 3/2 twists.

Similarly, if a twisted tri-prism ring with 3/3rds (one whole twist)of a twist is cut lengthwise into three along the edges, then three interlocking rings result. Each ring has one whole twist. The three interlocked rings are non-Borromean, that is, if one ring is cut, the other two are still linked.

Roger Whitney Darlington, January 1996

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