A ZOOM LENS WITH NO MOVING PARTS - © R.W.D. 1975
A transparent piezo-electric bi-morph is used as either a coating on a thin lens, or as the lens itself. A voltage applied to the bimorph via transparent tin-oxide electrodes on either side makes the lens flex becoming more or less curved, thus altering it's focal length. A number of such elements arranged into a camera lens will make a zoom lens with no moving parts, able to zoom at high speed and with great precision. Focussing could be achieved in a similar way without moving parts.
A variation on this could make either multiple fixed focal length lenses or a zoom lens in the same cylinder. Simply make a multiple exposure hologram in the glass cylinder with the various lenses, or zoom the lens. This hologram would have to be made two such photochromic glass cylinders whose position was changed in discrete steps whilst changing the reference lenses or moved continuously whilst zooming the reference lens. Upon altering the same relative position of these two glass cylinders when on a camera, the original focal length will be recreated.
I think that the particles of mass contained within a Black Hole, which can possess just mass charge and spin, must be Higgs Bosons: the conferers of mass upon all other fundamental particles. They are already within a tuned cavity - the Black Hole, which has very a high reflectivity boundary: indeed, nothing can get out. But things can get in. The perfect one-way mirror!
If the population of the energy levels of the Higgs Bosons can be inverted, then the Higgs Bosons would then lase within the Black Hole cavity. An unusual laser indeed. Perhaps one way of pumping the Higgs Bosons to higher energy levels is provided when two such Black Holes collide together. And when they collide, the junction of the two Black Holes, being now convex rather than concave, will reverse the one-way mirror effect, and an extremely energetic beam of gravitational waves will emerge from the lasing cavity at the juncture of the two merging Black Holes. This would be a Gravitational Wave Laser. Astronomers believe that quasars are in fact two colliding Black Holes. Since cosmologist seem to have no idea why quasars emit the most energetic bi-polar opposing beams in the Universe, my explanation seems as good, (or better?), that anyones'...
I can extend my theory here. I predict that astronomers or cosmologists will eventually find that quasars have not just two opposing beams, but four! Why?
Well, gravitons, the perveyor of gravitational waves, are spin-2 particles, which are quadrupole: they have four poles or lobes, two opposing which are positive in sign, and another two at right-angles to those that are opposite in sign. With the merging Black Hole emitting lasing gravitons, they are all in one Bose-Einsten Condensate form, all aligned up together. This means that 4 beams will emerge; the two they have observed, plus another two of opposing sign, which may have differing properties. That's why astronomers haven't before been seen four beams emerging from quasars. Look for other effects at right angles to the two obvious emerging beams and some other effect might be seen.
A prediction that can be tested... Astronomers: get observing...
The four beams, two from the '+' lobes and two from the orthogonal '-' lobes of the collimated stream of gravitons, could, because they are gravitational waves, have accelerating and decelerating properties. One pair of beams, from the '+' lobe, might be accelerating: they would accelerate any particle within the graviton beam (without the usual necessity of the accelerating particles possessing electrical charge). The particles being accelerated would be riding on the accelerating lasing gravitational wave like surfers. This could provide the power source for the intense beam of highly energetic extra-galactic particles which are known to be emitted by Quasars. Thus, here is a mechanism for accelerating cosmic ray particles to energies beyond the 5×19 eV GZK limit, up to the observed and enigmatic enormous energies of 3×1022 eV (and probably beyond). No one has yet provided a satisfactory explanation for these beams before, could this be one?
But the '-' lobes of the quadrapole might provide something even more interesting: they might be decelerating beams: the 'Tracktor' beams from Star Trek. If so, this would explain why these two beams have not yet been observed from Black Holes: they decelerate any particles within them!
The jet stream seems to snake about in huge meanders, like a river bed, but staying in the same place for a month or more (a so-called blocking high). Blocking-high events are far more numerous this and for the last two years. But they do move. The jet stream suddenly takes a short-cut, shorting out the meander. When it switches, it switches suddenly, like a micro-switch mechanism, with no intermediate positions. It thus exhibits BISTABLE behaviour. It likes to be either north of the UK, or south of the UK. When it switches position, it leaves behind a lot of small eddies, of both low and high pressures, but only shallow ones, without many isobars, and thus little wind. It's like blowing the air, then suddenly stopping. The eddies continue swirling, but are not being maintained any more by an active jet-stream, so they are just slack.
But because the jet-stream seems to prefer one of two positions: north or south of the UK, maybe it really wants to occupy both! To have two parallel jet streams, one north of the UK, the other south. In-between would be a counter-rotating jet-stream, like the bands on Jupiter. Thus this bistable behaviour could suddenly give rise to a bifurcation; a doubling in the number of jet-streams. That is my theory. The weather could get an awful lot worse and become a whole lot less predicatable.
Only time (50/100? years) will tell if I am right that a doubling in the number of jet-streams is set to occur.